Traditionally it has been the granary of Costa Rica, producer of beef cattle, but due to the prolonged periods of drought, it is currently trying to develop through other projects such as tourism.
To the north with Nicaragua, to the south and west with the Pacific Ocean, and to the east with the Canton of Upala, the Cordillera de Guanacaste, and the Abangares River.
It is formed by The Cordillera de Guanacaste where large geothermal and hydroelectric projects are developed; the Tempisque plains of volcanic and alluvial origin; the hills of Nicoya and the coastal plains that have many gulfs along their coastline. Fishing, salt flats and especially tourism are exploited on these coastlines.
The most important are livestock and agriculture. Rice, corn, beans, cotton, and non-traditional products such as sunflower, jojoba, macadamia, etc. are produced within agriculture. Livestock is meat and dairy.
It is varied, hot on the plains, up to 35 ° C. and temperate in the mountainous parts. It is the driest region in the country, it does not reach 1500 mm a year and also the rains are very poorly distributed. It rains from May to October with long periods of drought.
The dry tropical forest predominates. The typical trees are Guanacaste, guapinol, espabel, pochote, and others. Characteristic animals are deer, coyotes, squirrels, tigrillos, Congos, iguanas, a great variety of birds, etc.
In the upper parts of the mountain systems, there are mixed high-altitude forests.
For the protection of flora, fauna and geological formations and national heritage there are national parks: Santa Rosa, Cabo Blanco, Rincón de la Vieja, Palo Verde and Barra Honda.
Santa Rosa National Park and Bolaños Island, Junquillal National Wildlife Refuge, Guanacaste National Park, Horizontes UCR Experimental Station, Las Baulas National Park, Tamarindo National Wildlife Refuge, Curú National Wildlife Refuge, Barra Honda National Park, Biological Reserve Lomas de Barbudal, Palo Verde National Park.