In general terms: to the north with the Central Volcanic Cordillera, to the south with some foothills of the Cordillera de Talamanca, to the east with the political limit of Heredia and Cartago with Limón to the west, the political limit of San José and Alajuela with Puntarenas.
It is a region that has mountains, hills, and flatlands. The soils are of volcanic, alluvial, and lithosol origin (rich in humus, formed by the decomposition of organic materials).
The important hydrographic basins are Virilla and Grande de San Ramón and the Reventazón basin in the eastern part.
This area concentrates 80% of industrial establishments: production of food, beverages, textiles, tobacco, clothing, footwear, etc., that is, activities dedicated to direct consumption, to which can be added those dedicated to the production of intermediate goods such as paper, cardboard, chemicals, assembled, plastics, etc.
This area has the best climate in the country if one takes into account that the temperatures in the Central Valley oscillate around 20 ° C, without great variations in cold or heat. It depends on the height and position of the mountains for the different temperatures and amount of rainfall. It has 2 well-defined seasons: dry and rainy.
It is the most populated area of the country, many of the spices have disappeared. In the mountain ranges, the mixed forest of height is presented. For example, in the Poás Volcano National Park, the Empalme and Trinidad sector in the Talamanca Mountain range, the trees are relatively low, with parasites, orchids. Oaks with mosses, lichens, climbing plains, etc. are characteristic. The fauna is present as eagles, wild chickens, guinea pigs, field mice, armadillos, a variety of birds, etc.
NATIONAL PARKS AND BIOLOGICAL RESERVES
Central Volcanic Mountain Range Forest Reserve, Manuel Alberto Brenes Biological Reserve, Montes de Oro Protective Zone, Río Grande Protective Zone, Chayote Protective Zone, Poás Volcano National Park, Grecia Forest Reserve, Braulio Carrillo National Park, Guácimo Pococí Aquifer Protective Zone, Archaeological National Monument Guayabo, Cerros de Escazú Protected Zone, Irazú Volcano National Park, Ricardo Jiménez Oreamuno Recreational Area, Tiribí Protected Zone, Carpintera Protected Zone, Lankester UCR Gardens, Sombrero River and Navarro River Protective Zone, Tapantí National Park, Río Macho Forest Reserve, Forest Reserve Los Santos, Cerro Narra Protected Zone, Caraigres Protected Zone.